Simpson History



Col. Richard "Duke" Simpson

Nine letters between the Reid and Simpson families Written between 1816 and 1847
Contributed and transcribed by Ralph Simpson

The following letters are copyrighted by the University of North Carolina and posted here with their permission.

They were given to the University as a gift from Miss Cora F. Sanders, 19F Springvale Apartments, Croton-on-Hudson, New York, 10520 in March 1969. The donor's mother was a Reid from Tulip, Arkansas. She writes:

In the 1840s and 1850s, the Reids and the Simpsons, who had been tobacco planters in eastern North Carolina, migrated to Arkansas where they became cotton planters. This 1847 letter [below] was addressed to Keziah Reid in Tulip, Arkansas where she was staying either with her daughter Clarissa Smith or her sister Mollie Simpson Harris (Mrs. Tyre Harris). In 1855, Thomas J. Reid (my grandfather) youngest son of Major John Reid, went from his tobacco plantation in Person County, North Carolina to Arkansas. The women and children of the family made the long journey in carriages, the men were on horseback, and the slaves were in covered wagons.

All these families built their homes in Tulip, Arkansas. Their cotton plantations were on the Mississippi where their cotton could be shipped to New Orleans. Up to the time of the Civil War, they were all very prosperous. They brought a teacher from Boston to teach their children, sent the older ones to Eastern schools. They had fine homes. My mother (daughter of Thomas Reid) said their home had iron gates, a long, tree-lined drive to the house, which was white Southern Colonial with a two-story veranda. Her father had about 270 slaves; his uncle-in-law, Tyre Harris, had over 1,000 slaves.

In the last paragraph of this October 1847 letter Duke Simpson writes: "You request to know of my father your age and his. You were born on the 8th February 1767 and he was born on the 3rd of March 1770."  Note the penciled figures at the end of this letter. Evidently Keziah figured her age, several times. The last time at age 88, she died at age 91.

  From the John Reid Papers #3882
  Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library
  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

1) John B. Reid to his father, Major John Reid (1/9/1816)

Richmond Ky. Janr. 9th 1816

Dear Father,

No doubt when you open this letter & see the early date of it from the one I sent you by Col. Murphy, you will be a little astonished, the more so when you see it is from Richmond. After my compliments to you, mother & the rest of the family, I will state to you the cause of my living in this place. When Col. Murphy started home I rode with him to this place & when we had parted & I was about to start back to uncle Maj. Grugett, the gentleman with whom I board, understanding that it was my intention to go to school in this country somewhere, informed me that there was a gentleman lately arrived here from Boston who was well qualified to teach & wished to get a small private school in his home, I told him I could give no answer untill I saw uncle & conversed with him on the subject as I intended to be entirely guided by him - consequently next day uncle and myself went to town to take my deposition which was done accordingly. & then Maj. Grugett introduced uncle to the gentleman when after considerable conversation with him & his being so highly recommended by an acquaintance of uncles' he concluded to send me to him awhile - so I commenced on the 19th Dec in order that if I should not like his teaching I might leave off going & loose less time than I would if I should have commenced after Christmas - but in the time that I went I liked him very well as a teacher & determined to continue with him - but next it was necessary to know what he would have for tuition, which he said would be one dollar per week - which I immediately determined not to give him - but after consulting with uncle - he thought that my advantages here would be so great as we both board in the same room together (that is the teacher) that we concluded to offer him $30 per Ann which he refused to take but sd. he would take 75 cts a week. This uncle and myself thought was very extravagant but upon considering over everything we concluded to give it to him for 3 or 4 months - as Willson's session had commenced about the 1st of Decr. last & there is only 5 months in a session which would have only 4 for me to go in. & I would have to pay for the whole session even if I could only to go 2 months - whereas I only pay him for the time I go - & my advantage here will be as great again as at Willson's  - for if I was to go on to Willson then the school would be very much crowded & has only about 10 or 12 students & of rights I can get any information on any subject whatever from Mr. Whitting who is my teacher - for you may depend he is a very clever fellow & a Yankee too has formerly taught in one of the principle Academies in Massachusetts & a graduated lawyer but his state of health at present will not permit him to come to the bar - & as my future study is that of law he says he can teach me every thing necessary to commence that study. - I am now studying geometry & trigonometry & expect to commence geography up on a new scale there is a small book with questions in it & I am to find the answers from the globes which will fix it in my mind without any summarizing. - I have to give Majr. Grugett $75 per term for board. & to Mrs. Parker a private lady in town $15 per term. for washing. The more I am in the country in which you live, - you cannot imagine how my astonishment is excited to think that you will live there & not come here - now let me again entreat you to sell yr. possessions if possible & move to this or some other country better than that as soon possible for the sooner the better. - I was on Wednesday the 27th Decr. at a Masonic Ball held at Maj. Grugett's, where I enjoyed myself very agreeably with 69 other gentlemen & about 100 ladies - the company separated about 12 o'clock - all in harmony. - Polly Simpson is to be married tomorrow evening to a Mr. Phelps a close neighbor of uncles who is recommended to me as a very fine young man & very well off. Robert is to be married in about 2 weeks to a Miss Dickey & Richd. is going to Orleans - the people of this town & also in the country have & are now very sickly with something like the influenzy & bad colds. - I have been very unwell with it but am much better than I have been - & hope this letter will you all enjoying health - Duke Watson? is still living with xxx & has got no where else to go to but uncle says he will pay him whatever his work shall be worth untill he can get some place to go to - I have one charge to give you, that is, you must not fail to write to me immediately after the reception of this letter & let me know how all acquaintances are & also if you have sold yr. tobacco when, where, & what you got for it - do all you can to keep Clary & Tommy at school for youth is the time to improve the mind & cultivate the morals - I will write you again in the course of a month or 6 weeks & let you know how I progress &c &c -

Give my love and best respects to all the family & give my friends particularly to Col Murphy & Mr. Leasaur? - Tell William that I should be extremely glad to receive a letter from him -

I got a pretty general acquaintance with all the gentlemen in town & find extremely clever & familiar. - I must close this letter, after saying as much as I have, but with reluctance for it appears as I wish to write something but know not what - I therefore subscribe myself your Sincere & ever affectionate son.


P.S. Let me know also if you are about to get
many subscribers to T. Reids proposals - yrs. &c.

2) John B. Reid to his father, Major John Reid (3/3/1816)

Outside envelope:     Majr. John Reid


                               N. Carolina

Madison County - March 3rd 1816

Dear Father,

                        I now write you agreeable to my promise by uncle, who sets off for N.C. on Tuesday morning next. My state of health continues as much as usual if any thing some better than it has been. I have not commenced going to school yet nor I do not expect to commence untill uncle returns in April next when I wish you to give him full instructions how I shall proceed & allso write me on the subject. I am well aware that my situation at present will not admit of my studying any thing for to tell the truth I have something like a consumption & of course I must take very good of myself & this summer I wish to ride over the country take a view of it & visit my relations &c. which I think will increase my health as much as I can any how else. - My cough is much worse at night when I lie down than any other time - in the day it does not pester me any of account - I have as good an appetite to eat as ever I had & eats as hearty but still I keep poor & appear to fall away at - times I have a very severe pain over my eyes. -

                        The next thing is I shall also want to know by uncle how I am to get a horse & when you wish me to return to N.C. - my informing you that I expected not to go to school any more this spring. I hope will not keep you from sending me the sum of money you promised in your letter of the 19th Janr. as I shall have need of money in several cases & I owe Majr. Grugett for board & Mr. Whitting for tuition & a person from home has use for money in a great many instances more than if he was at home. - But I am in hopes that after a while I shall be able to commence school again as I am very desirious of finishing Euclids Elements the study in which I was engaged in - & I also wish to study Geography. - On the early & proper education of youth & friends in a great measure not only their own happiness but that of their parents their friends and posterity. If they be enlightened by true & useful science there is reason to hope they will be seen in after life acting the dignified part of wisdom & virtue & thereby rendering themselves ornaments to society and a blessing to the world. But the opposite effects are certainly to be apprehended from an opposite source.-

                        As to our next president from different accounts it appears as public opinion is various - the following gentlemen are named - James Monroe of Va., Wm H. Crawford of Geor., Gov. Tompkins of N.York, De Witt Clinton of Io.? and John Q. Adams of Mass. but I think Monroe will be elected. - James Reid (son of John Reid of this county) was married to Polly Reid (daughter of uncle Alex.) on Tuesday evening last & next day I was invited to his fathers where I was treated as kindly as ever I was in my life. - Duke Wm son is now living with uncle & likes our uncle is to give him $60 per term. He is very well at present & I think doing very well. Uncles family are all well & he can tell you more that I can write. Give my respects to all friends & relations & also the family & believe me ever to be yr. affectionate Son.


3) John B. Reid to his mother, Keziah Simpson Reid (3/5/1816)

Outside envelope:     Mrs. K. Reid
                                Caswell County
                                N. Carolina

Madison County Ky., March 5th 1816

Dear Mother,

                        I now write you to let you know I have not forgotten you nor the many favors I have recd. from you. I was very glad indeed to hear you had recovered from your fall you got in Chrismas & hope this letter will find you & the rest of the family well. I am not very well at present having a bad cough & pains over my eyes. But you need give yourself no uneasiness for there is no doubt but what I shall get well. - I have not been to see uncle & aunt Cleveland but will go as soon as possible. I have been to see Dick Oldham & family & found them very kind. I have also got acquainted with Keziah Thompson who made me promise to come & see her which I should have done long since only the boys are generally busy & cannot go with me. I have got acquainted old Mr. T Reid & his family also uncle Alex's John Holby (Holley?) & several others of your acquaintances - I intend going over to Lexington this spring with xx Hardin among the Heart family. - I have got acquainted with Jere Burton who came to uncles the week before last from Ten. & setts off tommorrow with uncle for hovire? & he says his father & the relations were well & that Dick Williamson came there & made up a school & had 38 schollars at $8 but drank very hard & at length agreed to quit his school at the end of 4 months if they would pay him for that time which they did & he had $69 on Tuesday morning & went into town & on Thursday he had not a cent & went on in this way.

                       I have inclosed you a cap which I wish you to accept as a memorial of my gratitude & love for you - but I don't want you to lay it by & not use it. I sent it for you to wear. I have also sent Clarrissa a brest pin which she must keep to remember me - Duke Williamson is well & living with uncle & working in the crops he gets $50 & clothes himself he says he is coming to N.C. next winter. Mr. Hardin & cousin Betsey are well & their son continues to improve daily. Uncle's family are all well. Give my love to Tommy & Clarrissa & believe me ever to be yr. affectionate son.


4) Richard "Duke" Simpson to his brother-in-law, Major John Reid (4/24/1816)

Outside envelope:     Richmond Ky
                                April 25
                                Majr, John Reid
                                Caswell Coty No. Carolina
                                P.Office Lenox Castle

Kentucky, Madison County, 24th April 1816


                        I have taken up my pen to write you with more reluctance than ever I experienced on any former occasion when writing to a friend. - But duty enjoins it & painfull as the recital is - I will faithfully detail it. - Your son had continued very nigh in the same condition I left him (perhaps rather declining) till about ten or twelve days before my return, when he was violently attackted with the Measels - that  brought on him a high fever & he desired to have Doctr. Rollins sent for, which was accordingly done & the Doctr. Has attended him ever since & is yet attending on him.

                       His fever still continues tho tis now slight, his cough has ceasd. & he spits freely & the Doctr. says all the symptoms are favourable. - But, (tho I don't wish to alarm you) I am notwithstanding the Doctors opinion, very fearfull he is approaching his dissolution fast - in a few days I shall be able to form a better opinion & will give it to you honestly - when his fever is ok he is a chearfull as formerly, seems fond of company & conversation - when his fever is on, he sleeps almost continually, talks in his sleep & appears to be often dreaming - in his sleep, he very frequently blames himself for bringing the Measles into my family & well say he ought not to have done so - tho I have not heard say anything xxx when awake - He read yours and Billys letters, with a great deal of satisfaction & made very particular enquiries about his Mother & Sister. - My family is well except the Measles - & my heart is too full to write you any more. I am DSir with sentiments of the highest consideration & respect Yr.HLeeS


P.S. I got home on Saturday the 20th of this month-

& two weeks after the Rect. of this, your may expect another.

5) Richard "Duke" Simpson to his brother-in-law, Major John Reid (5/8/1816)

Outside envelope:     Richmond Ky
                                May 9
                                Majr, John Reid
                                Caswell County
                                No. Carolina
                                P.Office at Lenox Castle

Kentucky, Madison County, 8th May 1816


                        It has become my painfull duty, to be the harbinger to you of the melancholy & heart rending news of the death of your son, who departed this life on Friday last at a half past 10 o'clock. The Measles I have no doubt hastened his exit, from the time he was taken with that complaint, he wasted & declined very fast. On the Sunday before I got home, he in the afternoon rode home with Mr. Hardin & Betsey with an intention of staying till Wednesday, but he declined so fast on Wednesday he was unable to get back & consequently continued with Mr. Harden till his death. - he was confined to his bed only about two weeks, during which time he had considerable company it appeard to me he was admired by all that knew him & was waited on with the utmost attention.-  After reading the letter I brought him & asking me a number of questions about the family &c, the next day after I got home - he was no more heard to mention any of you till about two days before his death, & then in his sleep, he at different times talkd of all the family. - He appeard Chearfull & did not seem to suffer any pain during his indisposition nor did he ever once complain, or say he was sick. We had an elegant Coffin made for him, of Curled Cherry, with a raisd top & having nicely dressd & shouded? him - have buried him at Mr. Hardens by the side of his little children. - I shall have no funeral appointed till I hear from you, tis possible if you should move to this country, the family may wish to attend it.

                       A few days before his death he gave Mr. Harden a bill of different little debts he owed in Town & requested him to go in & pay them off & bring him the rects. which Mr. Harden did & after reading them, he put them into his pocket book & that in his Coat pocket.

                       His money, Watch, Cloaths, Saddle, bridle, Saddlebags, Books, &c are all here & shall be particularly taken care of - subject to your order.-

                       My family has & will all put on morning for him & so will a number of his acquaintances in the Town & Country & there will be a great deal more respect so to his memory, then you can possibly suppose a youth of his age could command. - He died quite easy, without a groan or struggle & was the most amiable looking corpse I ever beheld, having that agreeable smile on his countenance, that was common with through life. - My family is not yet clear of the Measles tho I hope none of them dangerous. - I am Sir real friend & HreS


6) Richard "Duke" Simpson to his nephew, William B. Simpson (4/7/1845)

Outside envelope:     Mr. Willam B. Reid
                                Fayette County Tennessee
                                P.Office White Hall

                                                                                              Independence, Missouri, 7th April 1845

Dear Billy,

                       I recd. your friendly & affectionate letter of the 10th of March a few days ago, which gave me not a little pleasure to hear my old sister is still living and enjoying good health, as also your own family, with the exception of yourself.

                       I have not yet fully decided whether I will attempt to comply with your invitation to visit you and Sister this spring or not.  - I have a strong inclination to do so, but very much dread the undertaking - but I will decide in a few days. & If I come, I will leave here about the 10th of May & if nothing happens will be with you about the 18th or 20th of the month. - If I come, my Daughter Henrietta Harris will come with me at least she says so now - it would give me inexpressable satisfaction to visit you & spend a few weeks with Sister & your family & I think if my health continues tolerable good I attempt it, but should I decline the undertaking I will apprise you of it & not keep you in suspense.

                       I have sold all my property, real & personal, and divided the money equally amoungst my children - except what I think may be necessary for my own support & am now living next to my Daughter above xxxed.

                      My children is at last all in the state, except my eldest son John who resides in Baltimore, Maryland. & xxx xxx 28 years past this number of children, grandchildren & great grandchildren will astonish you.  - We counted them up a short time since and then there is now living 104 or 5 & increasing astonishingly -  they are as far as I know on good health and I think doing well generally.  - My own health is as good as a man of my age ought to expect. - & my hand trembles so I can't write any more but wish I shall see you shortly. Affectionately, your uncle.


7) Richard "Duke" Simpson to his nephew, William B. Simpson (9/9/1845)

Outside envelope:     Westport Mo
                               Mr. Willam B. Reid
                               Fayette County Tennessee
                               P.Office White Hall

Independence, Mo., 9th Septr. 1845

Dear Nephew,

                        I wrote you sometime ago that my Daughter Henrietta and myself contemplated paying a visit to Sister Keziah and your family and expected to start about the 1st of this month - we prepared for the trip & had all things in readiness when to our disappointment, my son Duke & Daughters Henrietta & Julia Ann were all three taken down with the fever and had a violent attack - the first two are recovering and I trust out of danger, but Julia Ann has been expected to die every hour for the last ten days, however we think a favourable change took place yesterday evening and we now have some hopes she may recover - this has prevented us for the present from attempting to set out, & before she can sufficiently recover to be left in safety, the season will be too far advanced for a man of my age to undertake it. - add to this the Missouri River is so low, that the steam Boats have ceased to run, consequently we could not come if nothing else prevented - however we have not declined the visit & if I live and enjoy my health untill next spring, I will attempt it if I find sister still lives & I hope you will write me from time to time informing me of her health.-

                       We had six weeks of extremely wet weather in May & June at the close of it our crops looked very bad, but since that time the season has been favourable, and they have come out surprisingly & will be very abundant. - My whole family except those I have mentioned I think are in good health as I sincerely hope these times may find Sister & your family - to all of whom present my best wishes & believe affectionately,

Your Uncle,


[written in margin]
When you write again, tell me about your mother in law - if dead,
when and where she died & where her other children are.

8) Richard "Duke" Simpson to his sister, Keziah Simpson Reid (5/4/1847)

Outside envelope:     Westport Mo
                                Mrs. Keziah Reid
                                Fayette County Tennessee
                                P.Office White Hall
                                May 24th/47

West Port Jackson County< Mo., May 4th  1847

Dear Sister,

                       I recd. your letter of the 13th of last month some days ago & would have answerd it before this time, but my health would not permit of it. - I have been unwell since about the first of January but thank providence I feel to be recovering. - I think Sister tis reduced to a certainty that we never shall have the pleasure of meeting in this world any more, I would have tried to have visited you, but my health was bad & the whole family opposed it - but sister if we can prepare, & through the mercy of God & intercession of our Saviour to meet where parting will be no more - let this satisfy us, for our separation here.

                       I am extremely sorry to hear of Williams death, leaving behind him a wife & such a number of children - but I am told his wife is a sensible fine woman, let us hope for the best.

                       You ask to hear something from Betsey Harden. She lives up the Missouri River, in the Platt Country some hundred & fifty above me. I but seldom hear from her, but as usual I expect they are not doing very well. She has seven children, they are all grown & married but the youngest & how they are making out I can't say. The rest of my children is progressing well & all growing rich & are highly respectable. - I am sorry Mr. Smith & Clarissa is not in your neighborhood as you have but the one Daughter it would afford you great consolation to have Clare by you. -

                       After my wifes death, I soon discovered that I could not manage a house & plantation too. & I determined to give up all my property to my children & they advertised a public sale, in a certain day & sold land, negroes, & every thing and made an equal division amoungst them - receiving to myself Twenty five hundred dollars, which I thought sufficient for me the residue of my life. - We have had a severe winter & I think the people is more sickly than usual at this season of the year.

                       My children is enjoying as good health as is to be expected. My hand cramps so that I can't write any more - give my love to Billy, Widow & children & believe me sincerely your affectionate Brother.


9) Duke Williamson Simpson to his aunt, Keziah Simpson Reid (10/25/1847)

Outside envelope:     West Port Mo
                                Oct. 25th
                                Mrs. Keziah Reid
                                Tulip Post Office
                                Dallas County

West Port Mo., October 25th  1847

Dear Aunt,

                       For the last year, my father finds it impossible to do what writing he wishes, and it hurts him so, to write, that I think it is more than probable that he will hardly ever write another letter.  - At his instance I write you these lines, as he feels very curious that you shall hear from him. - He made two attempts to write you a letter, and failed.  - He feels very solicitous to hear from you, as long as you and himself lives and I will do his writing hereafter.

                       For the last year, my fathers health has been excellent for a man of his age, and he looks young comparatively speaking for a man of his age, he is medling? fleshy?, and is full of life, and is as as talkative and fond of company and friends as a boy. - He is entirely temperate, drinks no spirits of any kind, quit some eighteen months ago and says that he feels better and enjoys himself better than he ever did before. - He determined within himself to quit using any spirits. - He never joined any Temperance Society. This I consider a very extraordinary case, a man that has been in the habit of using spirits for 65 or 70 years to a small extent, should entirely quite is a rare occurrence. - He is living with his daughter Henrietta Harris since the death of my mother, apparently as well contented as any person, where he enjoys the society of his children almost every week, all living near to him, except brother John, and Betsey, who married Hardin. - John lives in Baltimore, and Betsey lives above us on the Mo. River some 150 miles.  - My fathers children who live in Mo. are all well off, in good circumstances and are making money, clear of any dissipation, and pretty much devoted to work and business.

                       My fathers offspring are quite numerous, he has a large number of children and grandchildren. - Betsey Hardin and her husband have managed worse than any of our family in point of wealth. - I have been unfortunate in some respects, I have my third wife, whom I married about 18 months ago, she was a Mrs. Winchester raised near Gallatin in Tennessee, she was a widow of Levitius Winchester (who was the son of Genl. James Winchester who died in Sumner County Tennessee). My present wife was a daughter of Isaac Bledsoe, near Bledsoe's lick in Sumner County Tenn. - I have six living children, 4 Sons & 2 Daughters, all hale, and healthy.  - At present I am living in West Port, have been selling goods here since March 1839.  I also own a fine farm and landed estate 3 miles south of this place, and my prospects are as good as I ought to wish in money matters.

                       My father at one time promised himself to pay you a visit in cousin Williams life time, and was two or three times on the very eve of starting , but he dislikes the idea of going from home and is and always was the most home person that you ever saw. - I doubt now whether he ever will have the pleasure of seeing of you in time.  - But I must insist on your writing to him, you have no idea how he is delighted on receiving a letter from you.  - It has been a great while since I had the pleasure of seeing of you, or any of your family.  - Once, when a boy, it was a great treat to go visiting to uncle Reids and my recollections of circumstances and things are as bright and clear as yesterday.  - Cousin Clarissa was very young and timid in those days, and I reckon she scarcely remembers me. Tender to her and her husband my best wishes for their future happiness and welfare.

                       There are but a few persons who have enjoyed the same degree of health as you and my father and who have lived to the same age.  - Time is sweeping of us off.  - In looking back I find you have lost cousin John and Wm. and my father has buried his wife and Bros. Robert, Richard, George and Polly an a great many of my youthful acquaintances and schoolmates are gone the way of all the earth.  - My father is well pleased at the idea of you going to live with Clarissa and thinks you will be much better contentious and is glad to hear that you are in a good neighborhood and? have good society. These things render life much more agreeable.  - I find from you letter to father that you are fond of going to church, which I rejoice exceedingly to hear, being in accordance with my own notions of right.  - I was Baptized in 1804 in Ky. and have been attached to the Christian body since that time and in this day and time they call me a Reformer or Campbellites (that is to say the Sects).  - But with me nicknames are nothing.  - You request to know of my father your age and his. - You were born on the 8th February 1767 and he was born on the 3rd of March 1770. - My fathers health is good at present and our relations generally speaking are well.  - We have had some sickness among us this season, my family has been somewhat unwell, that is my wife's health is not good, though better than it has been. Some of my slaves have been unwell, indeed I have lost one young woman this season. - Mr. Harris's family have been somewhat unwell this season, though he has not lost any of them.  - Our country generally speaking has been healthy. - Give my respects to Mr. Smith and Clarissa and family, and accept of my best wishes for your health and happiness, both in time and Eternity. -

Truly I remain your Nephew,


[Calculations of Keziah and Richard's age were handwritten on the bottom
of the letter based on the birth days mentioned above. The letter is dated
in 1847 but the calculations were done for the years 1848 and 1855]

                 1848                 1855                 1855
                 1767                 1767                 1770
                    81                    88                     85

  From the John Reid Papers #3882
  Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library
  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Old Westport

Contributed by Marshal Simpson

The excerpt below is from the 1916 book, "The Kinnears and their kin", by Emma Siggins White. You can read the entire book online.









History Mormon Expulsion from Missouri

Contributed by Ralph Simpson

Richard Simpson was the chairman of a citizens committee formed to determine what to do about the problem of the Mormons in Independence, MO. A son-in-law, James M. Hunter, was also a member of this committee. His son, George, was a leader in the famous tar and feathering of a Mormon bishop. Another son, Duke, wrote to his Aunt Kesiah Simpson Reid in 1847 that he was a follower of the Campbellites (read the letter here). The Campbellites divided into two sects, the Church of Christ and the Disciples of Christ and were at odds with the Mormons.

Here are some contemporary newspaper articles during this period:

By Charless & Pasehall.]         St. Louis, September 6, 1831          [Vol. 10 - No. 494. Picture2

The Mormonites. -- We learn from the Painesville Gazette, that this infatuated people are again in motion. In their own cant phrase, "they are going to inherit the promise of God to Abraham and his seed." Their destination is some indefinite spot on the Missouri river they say about 1500 miles distant. About eighty of them have recently been ordained and some have gone, others are about going, two and two, part by the western rivers and part by land, to their distant retreat, far away from the cheering voice of civilized man. Those who have disposed of their property go now, and such as have property, are making market for it so eagerly as often to disregard pecuniary interests, and all are to follow with all convenient dispatch. They still persist in their power to work miracles. They say they have often seen them done -- the sick are healed -- the lame walk -- devils are cast out -- and these assertions are made by men heretofore considered rational men, and men of truth. The Gazette expresses the opinion, that although the leaders of this sect are gross impostors, a great portion of its members are sincere and honest.

(Some of the leaders of this sect, we are told, passed through this place two or three weeks since, on their return to Ohio. We understand, that they have determined to migrate to Jackson County, on the extreme edge of this State; for which purpose they have purchased a sufficiency of land whereupon to locate the whole of the believers of Mormonism. We have some hope that the latter part of the paragraph may be true, as, in any other event, we should not rejoice much in the acquisition of so many deluded, insane enthusiasts.)

Note 1: The Republican was a little late in reprinting the above notice from the Painesville Geauga Gazette of June 21, 1831. As the St. Louis journalist adds, "the leaders... passed through this place two or three weeks since." The grand (?) first LDS Conference held in "Zion" took place on Aug. 4th, with Elders Joseph Smith, jr., Sidney Rigdon, and other prominent Saints in attendance. The events of that period are related in considerable detail in the published letters of Ezra Booth, beginning in the Oct. 13, 1831 issue of the Ohio Star. According to his report and other historical sources, Smith, and Rigdon passed through St. Louis, on their way back to Kirtland, in mid August of 1831.

Note 2: The newspapers of that early period were not yet saying much about Joseph Smith religious claims, Elder Ezra Booth's comments about the Mormon leaders, the Saints' intended migration to Missouri, etc. Early papers like the Republican and the St Louis Beacon, although they said little about the early Mormons, offer a wealth of supplementary information on the situation of the Saints along the Missouri frontier in 1831-32. For example, the Beacon's issues of May 31 and June 9, 1831 list letters waiting in the St. Louis post office for a certain "Joseph Smith." Possibly these were addressed to the Mormon leader, whose correspondents felt they could reach him in Missouri via the St. Louis post office. A stronger case can be made for the identity of the "Sidney Rigdon" who, according to the Beacon's issues of Aug. 2 and Aug. 18, 1831, also had letters waiting for him at the post office. The writer of these letters apparently expected Rigdon to pass through St. Louis on his way back to Ohio, after attending the LDS Conference at Independence.

By Charless &Pasehall.]                 St. Louis, April ?, 1833                 [Vol. ? - No. ?. Picture2

MORMONISM. -- The citizens of this place, for the past two weeks, have had an opportunity of hearing this new religion fully explained. Curiosity attracted many respectible congregations to hear them, and the majority were willing to give them a chance to prove their faith, but we have not heard that they brought conviction to any mind of a single individual. The only effect their preaching has had is, a tendency to confirm the sceptical, after hearing such glaring absurdities to be proved by the Bible.

Note: This report from St. Louis was reprinted in the May 9, 1833 issue of the Ravenna Western Star. The original article in the Republican has not yet been located. Apparently Mormon missionaries were then preaching in St. Louis, without making many converts.

By Charless &Pasehall.]             St. Louis,  Friday, May 3, 1833            [Vol. ? - No. ?. Picture2

MORMONISM. -- We perceive by a letter from Independence, Missouri to the Editor of the Cincinnati Journal that difficulties have already begun in the Mormon community at Mount Zion in that quarter: one of the members having sued the Bishop in a court of justice, for fifty dollars, which had been sent by plaintiff to said Bishop from Ohio, "to purchase an inheritance for himself and the saints of God in Zion in these last days." This was certainly a most impious act, but "nevertheless and notwithstanding," the jury found for the plaintiff; it appearing that though the good bishop had indeed appropriated the money "to the purchase of an inheritance," yet he had, unthoughtedly no doubt, procured the deed to be drawn in his own name, to his heirs, &c., and no one else in Zion nor out of it. The writer states that on this decision several other members are ready to make similar demands on the good bishop. Wonder if this is one of the bishop's miracles? It appears by another letter from the same gentleman, (Mr. Pixley, a Baptist clergyman,) that since their settlement at Mount Zion -- or Jerusalem, as they sometimes term it -- four or five hundred of these deluded wretches, including men, women, and children, have arrived there. Several others are said to be preparing to start there from Cincinnati, in the course of a few weeks. -- Ohio Courant.

Note 1: The above article evidently originated in the Zanesville Ohio Republican of Apr. 27, 1833. The issue of the Cincinnati Journal containing the Rev. Benton Pixley letter has not yet been located.

Note 2: The journalist's mention of "another letter from the same gentleman," references Rev. Pixley's Oct. 12, 1832 communication from Missouri to the Christian Watchman, reprinted in the Nov. 29, 1832 issue of the Independent Messenger. Another late 1832 Pixley letter, written to the Baptist Weekly Journal, was reprinted in the Apr. 6, 1833 issue of the Christian Register.

By Charless &Pasehall.]          St. Louis, Friday, August 9, 1833           [Vol. 12 - No. ? Picture2

REGULATING THE MORMONITES. -- Some very extraordinary proceedings have recently taken place in Jackson county, in this state, against the sect of fanatics called Mormons. These proceedings may find some justification in the necessity of the case, but they are wholly at war with the genius of our institutions, and as subversive of good order as the conduct of the fanatics themselves. Perhaps, however, it was the only method which could have been effectually put in practice to get this odious description of population out of the way. Banished as they are from that frontier, it may well be asked to what place will they now remove; and will they enjoy any better security in the new abode which they may select? But to the proceedings:

A meeting of the citizens of Jackson county, to the number of four or five hundred, was held at Independence on the 20th of July. Their avowed object was to take measures to rid themselves of the Mormonites. Col. Richard Simpson was called to the chair, and Jonas H. Flournoy and Samuel D. Lucas appointed secretaries. A committee was then appointed to report an address to the public, in relation to the object of the meeting. After having retired for some time, they submitted an address, which was unanimously adopted; and in which the conduct and views of the obnoxious sect are exposed. They represent that the Mormonites number some 1,200 souls in that county, and that each successive spring and autumn pours forth its swarms among them, with a gradual falling off in the character of those who compose them, until they have now nearly reached the low condition of the black population. That the citizens have been daily told that they are to be cut off, and their lands appropriated to the Mormons for inheritances; but they are not fully agreed among themselves as to the manner in which this shall be accomplished, whether by the destroying angel, the judgement of God, or the arm of power. The comittee express their fears that, should this population continue to increase, they will soon have all the offices of the county in their hands; and that the lives and property of other citizens would be insecure, under the administration of men who are so ignorant and superstitious as to believe that they have been the subjects of miraculous and supernatural cures; hold converse with God and his angels and possess and exercise the gift of divination, and of unknown tongues; and, are withal, so poor as to be unable to procure bread and meat. The committee say that one of the means resorted to by them, in order to drive us to emigrate, is an indirect invitation to the free brethren of color in Illinois, to come like the rest to the land of Zion. True, the Mormons say this was not intended to invite but to prevent emigration; but this weak attempt to quiet our apprehensions is but a poor compliment to our understanding." The invitation alluded to, contained all the necessary directions and cautions to enable the free blacks, on their arrival there, to claim and exercise their right of citizenship. Finally, the committee say --

Of their pretended revelations from heaven -- their personal intercourse with God and his angels -- the maladies they pretend to heal by the laying on of hands -- and the contemptible gibberish with which they habitually profane the Sabbath, and which they dignify with the appelation of unknown tongues, we have nothing to say. Vengeance belongs to God alone. But as to the other matters set forth in this paper, we feel called on by every consideration of self-preservation, good society, public morals, and the fair prospects, that if not blasted in the germ, await this young and beautiful country, at once to declare, and we do most solemnly declare.

1. That no Mormon in future move and shall settle in this county.

2. That those now here, who shall give a definite pledge of their intention within a reasonable time to remove out of the county, shall be allowed to remain unmolested until they have sufficient time to sell their property and close their business without any material sacrifice.

3. That the editor of the 'Star' be required forthwith to close his office, and discontinue the business of printing in this county; and as to all other stores and shops belonging to the sect, their owners must in every case strictly comply with the terms of the second article of this declaration, and upon failure, prompt and efficient measures will be taken to close the same.

4. That the Mormon leaders here, are required to use their influence in preventing any further emigration of their distant brethren to this county, and to counsel and advise their brethren here to comply with the above requisitions.

5. That those who fail to comply with these requisitions, be referred to those of their brethren who have the gifts of divination, and unknown tongues, to inform them of the lot that awaits them.

Which address being read and considered, was unanimously adopted. And thereupon it was resolved that a committe of twelve be appointed forthwith to wait on the Mormon leaders, and see that the foregoing requisitions are strictly complied with by them; and upon their refusal that said committee do, as the organ of this county, inform that it is our unwavering purpose and fixed determination, after the fullest consideration of all the consequences and responsibilities under which we act, to use such means as shall ensure their full and complete adoption, and that said committee, so far as may be within their power report to this present meeting. And the following gentlemen were named as said committee: Robert Johnson, James Campbell, col, Moses Wilson, Joel F. Chiles, hon. Richard Fristoe, Abner F. Staples, Garr Johnson, Lewis Franklin, Russel Hicks, esq., col. S. D. Lucas, Thomas Wilson, and James M. Hunter, to whom was added Col. R. Simpson, Chairman.

And after an adjournment of two hours, the meeting again convened, and the committee of twelve reported that they had called on Mr. Phelps, the editor of the "Star," Edward Partridge, the bishop of the sect, and Mr. Gilbert, the keeper of the Lord's store house, and some others, and that they declined giving any direct answer to the requisitions made of them, and wished an unreasonable time for consultation, not only with their brethren here, but in Ohio.

Whereupon it was unanimously resolved by the meeting that the "Star" printing office should be razed to the ground, the type and press secured. Which resolution was, with the utmost order, and the least noise or disturbance possible, forthwith, carried into execution, as also some other steps of a similar tendency; but no blood was spilled nor any blows inflicted. The meeting then adjourned till the 23d instant, to meet again to know further concerning the determination of the Mormons.

The citizens again convened on the 23d day of July, 1833, which was composed of gentlemen from all parts of the county, and much more unanimousely attended than the meeting on the 20th instant.

The meeting was organized by the chairman taking his seat, when the following gentlemen were appointed a committee, to wit:

Henry Chiles, Esq., Dr. N. K. Olmstead, H. L. Brazile, Esq., Zachariah Waller, Samuel Weston Esq., Wm. L. Irwin, Leonides Oldham, S. C. Owens Esq., George Simpson, Capt. Benjamin Majors, James C. Sadler, Col. Willian Bowers, Henry Younger, Russel Hicks Esq., Aaron Overton, John Harris, and Harmon Gregg, to wait upon the Mormon leaders, who had intimated a wish to have conference with said committee. After an adjournment of two hours, the meeting again convened, when the committee reported, to the meeting that they had waited on most of the Mormon leaders, consisting of the bishop, Mr. Partridge, Mr. Phelps, editor of the Star, Mr. Gilbert, the keeper of the Lord's store house, and Messrs. Carrol, Whitmer, and Moseley, elders of the church, and that the said committee had entered into an amicible agreement with them, which they had reduced to writing, which they submitted; and that the committee have assured Mr. Phelps that whenever he was ready to move, that the amount of all his losses should be paid to him by the citizens. The written agreement is as follows:

"Memorandum of agreement between the undersigned of the Mormon society in Jackson county Missouri, and a committee appointed by a public meeting of the citizens of said county, made the 23d day of July, 1833.

"It is understood that the undersigned, members of the society, do give their solemn pledges each for himself, as follows, to wit:

"That Oliver Cowdery, W. W. Phelps, William McClealand, Edward Partridge, Lyman Wight, Simeon Carter, Peter and John Whitmer, and Harvey Whitlock, shall remove with their families out of this county, on or before the first day of January next; and that they, as well as the two hereinafter named, use all their influence to induce all the brethren now here to remove as soon as possible -- one half, say, by the first of January next, and all by the first day of April next. To advise and try all means in their power to stop any more of their sect from moving to this county; and as to those now on the road, they will use their influence to prevent their settling permanently in the county, but that they shall only make arrangements for temporary shelter, till a new location is agreed on for the society. John Carrol and Algernon Gilbert are allowed to remain as general agents to wind up the business of the society, so long as necessity shall require; and said Gilbert may sell out his merchandise now on hand, but is to make no new importations.

"The 'Star' is not again to be published, nor a press set up by any of the society in this county.

"If the said Edward Partridge and W. W. Phelps move their families by the first day of January, as aforesaid, that they themselves will be allowed to go and come in order to transact and wind up their business.

"The committee pledge themselves to use all their influence to prevent any violence being used so as long as a compliance with the foregoing terms is observed by the parties concerned; to which agreement is subscribed the names of the above named committee, as also those of the Mormon brethren named in the report as having been present."

The report of the committee was unanimously adopted by the meeting and it was then adjourned.

Note: This article was widely reprinted in the Eastern papers, providing many American readers with their first detailed information on the Mormons in Missouri.

By Charless &Pasehall.]               St. Louis               [Vol. ? - No. ? Picture2

TAR AND FEATHERING OF A MORMAN BISHOP. -- On the 20th [July 1833], the mob collected, and demanded the discontinuance of the printing in Jackson county: a closing of the store: and a cessation of all mechanical labors. The brethren refused compliance, and the consequence was, that the house of W. W. Phelps, which contained the printing establishment, was thrown down; the materials taken possession of by the mob; many papers destroyed, and the family and furniture thrown out doors.

The mob then proceeded to violence towards [819] Edward Partridge, the bishop of the church, as he relates in his autobiography;

I was taken from my house by the mob, George Simpson being their leader, who escorted me about half a mile, to the court house, on the public square in Independence; and then and there, a few rods from said court house, surrounded by hundreds of the mob, I was stripped of my hat, coat and vest, and daubed with tar from head to foot, and then had a quantity of feathers put upon me, and all this, because I would not agree to leave the county, my home where I had lived two years.

Before tarring and feathering me, I was permitted to speak. I told them that the saints had had to suffer persecution in all ages of the world, that I had done nothing which ought to offend any one. That if they abused me, they would abuse an innocent person. That I was willing to suffer for the sake of Christ; but, to leave the country I was not then willing to consent to it.

By this time the multitude made so much noise that I could not be heard: some were cursing and swearing, saying, call upon your Jesus &c.; others were equally noisy in trying to still the rest, that they might be enabled to hear what I was saying.

Until after I had spoken, I knew not what they intended to do with me, whether to kill me, to whip me, or what else I knew not. I bore my abuse with so much resignation and meekness, that it appeared to astound the multitude, who permitted me to retire in silence, many looking very solemn, their sympathies having been touched as I thought; and, as to myself, I was so filled with the spirit and love of God, that I had no hatred towards my persecutors, or any one else.

Charles Allen was next stripped and tarred and feathered, because he would not agree to leave the county, or deny the Book of Mormon. Others were brought up to be served likewise or whipped, but from some cause, the mob ceased operations, and adjourned until Tuesday the 23rd. Elder Gilbert, the keeper of the store agreed to close that; and that may have been one reason, why the work of destruction was suddenly stopped for two days.

In the course of this day's wicked outrageous and unlawful proceedings, many solemn realities of human degredation, as well as thrilling incidents were presented to the saints.  An armed and well organized mob in a government professing to be governed by law, with the Lieutenant Governor, (Lilburn W. Boggs,) the second officer in the state, calmly looking on, and secretly aiding every movement, saying to the saints, "you now know what our Jackson boys can do, and you must leave the country," and all the justices, judges, constables, sheriffs, and military officers, headed by such western missionaries and clergymen as the Reverends McCoy, Kavanaugh, Hunter, Fitzhugh, Pixley, Likens, Lovelady, and Bogard, consisting of Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and all the different sects of religionists that inhabited that country; with that great moral reformer, and Register of the Land Office at Lexington, forty miles east, known as the head and father of the Cumberland Presbyterians, even the Reverend Finis Ewing publicly publishing that the "Mormons were the common enemies of mankind, and ought to be destroyed;" all these solemn realities were enough to melt the heart of a savage; while there was not a solitary offence on record, or proof that a saint had broken the law of the land.

And when Bishop Partridge: who was without guile, and Elders Charles Allen, walked off, amid the horrid yells of an infuriated mob, coated like some un-named, unknown biped, and one of the sisters cried aloud; "while you, who have done this wicked deed, must suffer the vengeance of God; they, having endured persecution, can rejoice, for henceforth, for them, is laid up a crown, eternal in the heavens;" surely there was a time of awful reflection, that man, unrestrained, like the brute beast, may torment the body; but God in return, will punish the soul.

Charless &Pasehall.]     St. Louis, Tuesday, November 12, 1833      [Vol. 12 - No. 641. Picture2


We lament to say that the following account, in its most essential features, is confirmed by other passengers in the steam boat Charleston.

On Board Steam Boat Charleston,
ST. LOUIS, Nov. 9th, 1833.

I take this opportunity to give you and your readers a brief sketch of the most flagrant and outrageous violation of the constitution of our country than has taken place since it was framed.

I am a member of the church of Christ, (reproachfully called Mormons or Mormonites) and am directly from Independence, the seat of war and bloodshed in the United States.

On Thursday night, Oct. 31, some forty or fifty of the citizens of Jackson county, Mo. assembled above the Blue, (a river about eight or ten miles west of Independence,) and, in part demolished twelve of the dwelling houses of our people who occupied them at the time. The inmates were obliged to escape to the woods, women and children running in every direction, halloing and screaming; and the men, being taken by surprise in the dead hour of the night, were unprepared to defend themselves if they had been disposed. They took two of our men and beat them with stones and clubs, leaving only a breath of life in them. After this the mob dispersed, it being about 3 o'clock in the morning.

Friday night, Nov. 1, the mob broke open the store of Gilbert &Whitney, and scattered their goods through the streets. They demolished Gilbert's brick dwelling house, and broke in the doors and windows of all the dwellings in Independence belonging to our people. Saturday our people left their dwellings, and took their most valuable articles of furniture, clothing, &c., that they might be better prepared for self-defence. Night came on, and the mob came along with it, and commenced their ravages again above the Blue, and after they had fired five or six guns upon our people without effect, our people fired upon them, and one of their number exclaimed, "O my God! I am shot!" The mob then dispersed, taking their wounded companion along with them, who was shot through the thigh.

On Monday last the mob collected again, in the town of Independence, to the number of two or three hundred, well armed; they called it "Calling Out The Militia." They undoubtedly thought that the above appellation would sound better than its real and legitimate name, which is MOB, and if they could lessen the magnitude of their crime in the eyes of the community by so doing, -- they, no doubt, would be highly gratified. But this cunning plot to deceive, covers their iniquity no more than the fig leaves covered our first parents in the garden from the piercing eye of Jehovah. At night a part of the number that had collected in town, went above Blue, to drive our people away, and destroy our property; but they were met by a party of our people, and being prepared, they poured a deadly fire upon them. Two or three of their number fell dead on the ground, and a number mortally wounded. Among the former, was Hugh L. Breazeale, Att'y at Law. Tuesday morning, there was a number of the mob missing and could not be accounted for, I was told.

I left Independence and came down the river to Liberty; landing where we stopped to take in freight; and while we were there, (Wednesday 11 o'clock, A. M.) a messenger rode up saying that he had just came from the seat of war, and that the night before, another battle was fought in which Mr. Hicks, Att'y at Law, fell, having three balls and some buck shot through his body; and about twenty more of the mob, shared a similar fate. Mr. H. was one of the heads of the mob. Report says also that one or two of our men were killed and as many wounded. The cannonading in the engagement was heard on board the boat very distinctly.

I was an eye witness to a part of the above statements; but things were in a state of great confusion and agitation at the time, and should there be an error in the above, I hope to find pardon in the eyes of a candid people. One more item I will notice. -- At the time Messrs G. &W.'s store was broken open, Mr. G. with a number of others, succeeded in taking the one who first broke open the door, and brought him forthwith before a magistrate to see if something could not be done with him; but the magistrate refused to do anything about it.

This was an unwise move of Mr. G.; but on seeing his property destroyed in that barbarous manner, and the agitation of mind which he was necessarily laboring under, he was led to do as he did. After they liberated the man, he took them with a warrant immediately for false imprisonment and put them in prison, viz: Mr. Gilbert, Phelps the printer, and one more; and as near as I can learn the mob was determined never to let them escape from prison alive.

I am one, who went to the Governor with a petition for assistance to obtain our rights, or redress of our wrongs and aggrievances received from the citizens of Jackson county, in July last. But as the circumstances then were, the Governor said he could do nothing, but advised us to take the regular steps of the law, which, at that time, was our only course, and this we attempted to do; but instead of peace being promoted by it, it increased their rage and led them to commit the horrid crimes named above.

I am satisfied that it is useless to undertake to enforce the laws in that county under the present circumstances, because there is no one to enforce them. Every officer, civil and military, with one or two exceptions, is either directly or indirectly engaged in the mob.

Under these painful circumstances, what remains to be done? Must we be driven from our homes? Must we leave the soil for which we have paid our money? -- Most our women and children be turned out of doors with nothing but the clouded canopy to cover them and the perpetration of the above crimes escape unpunished? Or must we fight our enemies three to one, or lie down and die and our names be blotted out from among men? Let the Executive of our State and nation consider these questions; and if they will answer them in the negative, let them signify it by raising the helping hand. Again, I ask in behalf of my brethren: Will not the Governor or President lend a helping hand in this deadly calamity? Shall the crisis of the innocent and distressed, salute the ears of the Executive in vain? God forbid! For while the constitution of the United States, which was given by the inspiration of Almighty God through the instrumentality of our fathers, shall stand, I trust that those who are honored with the Executive, will see that the laws are magnified and made honorable. -- Perhaps some of my friends, on reading this letter, will be ready to ask me what I think of my religion now: I have no reply, other than this: Paul said, "He that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution."

Editors throughout the United States, are requested to publish this letter, if they are willing to confer a favour upon those who are journeying through much tribulation


Note 1: Elder Hyde (Orson, not "Orsan") was an eye witness to much of the conflict he relates in his letter -- however, later reports provided differing accounts of what actually happened among the Mormons and the Missourians. The Rev. Isaac McCoy and the Rev. Benton Pixley both paint word pictures of the situation, somewhat at odds with Elder Hyde's telling of the story.

Note 2: The Philadelphia Saturday Courier, of mid April, 1833 contained yet another of these eye witness accounts from Western Missouri. See its reprint in the Apr. 20, 1833 issue of the Lebanon Ohio Eagle.

Charless &Pasehall.]        St. Louis, Friday, Nov. 15, 1833         [Vol. 12 - No. 642. Picture2

THE MORMONS AND ANTI-MORMONS. -- Our intelligence from the West by the mails, is not so late as that brought by the steam boat Charleston. The following account is extracted principally from the Fayette Monitor:

Houses and property were destroyed, and the Elders of the Church severely whipped by the mob, under cover of the night. It is impossible to forsee what is to be the result of this singular and outrageous violation of the laws. We fear that the party opposed to the Mormons will think themselves placed so far beyind the pale of the law as to continue utterly regardless of it, and eventually, by the power of numbers, be enabled to cut off the offending sect. The loss of their relatives and partizans will stimulate them to these acts, and fearful acts of bloodshed may have already been witnessed. As yet, our intelligence is not very accurate, or full, in regard to the measures taken by the officers of the county to surpass the rebellion as it may properly be called. The entire county is probably arrayed on one side or on the other; and in this state of things the power if the sheriff, and other officers, to suppress the riot, is perfectly futile. It is reported besides, that the Judge of the circuit, who attempted to interfer to stop the proceedings, as well as some of the officers, were captured by the mob, and placed in durance, either in jail, or in charge of some of their number, for a good many hours; and the Lieut. Governor, who resided in that county, was driven from it. In this state of things, we appregend the proper course would have been for the authorities to have represented the case to the Executive, for his interposition; but we have not learned whether they have done so. The facts are, nevertheless, notorious; and the Governor should, without delay, if he has not already done it, act upon them. He is bound to see that the laws are executed against all offenders. The power of the county not being available in this case, for almost all are concerned in the insurrection -- the Governor should issue his Proclamation, calling out the Militia of the neighboring counties, to enforce the laws, and to quell the riot. He should give the requisite orders to the officers for that purpose; and do it with all alacrity. It is very evident, that unless some effective measures are adopted by him in this emergency, the lives of many valuable citizens will be sacrificed, and the State suffer an irretrievable injury. A rancorous deadly hostility, has long existed between the parties, and unless the firmness and prudence of the Governor should be equal to the crisis, and the offending party be severely punished, we must expect to hear of the continual recurrence of such disgraceful proceedings.

We have nothing to do with the original causes of the quarrel. There may be many worthless and intolerable members of the obnoxious sect; but the laws are equal to the punishment of all those who are guilty of violating them. It does not appear that they were appealed to at all prior to this contest. The Mormons are as much protected in their religion, their property, and persons, as any other denomination or class of men. We think that they acted perfectly right in offering the resistance which they did, and thus far they have the sympathy of this part of the community.

Note: Unfortunately, the extant 1833 files of the Fayette Western Monitor do not appear to include the Nov. 8th issue from which the Republican journalist drew much of his information for the above article. A paraphrase of a Western Monitor article for Nov. 22, 1833 gives some of the flavor of that paper's reporting of the Mormon situation in western Missouri, however.

Charless &Pasehall.]        St. Louis, Friday, Nov. 22, 1833         [Vol. 12 - No. 644. Picture2

DISTURBANCES IN JACKSON COUNTY. -- We are glad to receive more pacific accounts from the county of Jackson, in which such disgraceful broils have recently taken place. We understand that the Mormonites have determined not to oppose any further armed resistance to the wishes of the dominent party, and that they were rapidly leaving the county and their homes, with intention of forming another community elsewhere. They are determined however, it is said, to prosecute the citizens engaged in hostilities towards them, and for the depredations committed upon their property; and, in this event, those who have disregarded all law may be made to feel its heaviest penalties, both in their persons and fortunes. The Mormonites have undoubtedly adopted the best course which was left to them; and all alarm has subsided in that county.

All our accounts, we are happy to say, concur in one thing, that the original statement as to the number killed, was much exaggerated. The most authentic and latest accounts which has reached us, puts down the number at six -- two of the citizens, and four of the Mormonites -- and a good many wounded. This statement was brought by the Steamboat Dove, from Independence, the seat of justice of Jackson coounty. Many reports prevailed even in that quarter as to the extent of the loss of life; and the first rumors may have well gained circulation without any sinister motives in those who gave credence and publicity to them.

We are informed, that an authentic statement of all the occurrences which have disgraced that county, may be shortly expected. It was to be made out by some very respectable gentlemen of the county -- who have, from beginning to end, taken no part in the contest -- and in whose veracity every confidence may be placed. Such a statement is due to the people of Missouri, whose reputation must suffer in the eyes of all good men; and may remove much of the odium which at present attaches to one of the parties engaged in this disreputable contest.

Charless &Pasehall.]        St. Louis, Friday, Dec. 6, 1833         [Vol. 12 - No. 650. Picture2

INDEPENDENCE, MO., Nov. 16, 1833.

To the Editors of the Missouri Republican.

  Sirs. --
The object of this communication is to correct some erroneous publications in relation to myself, which I discover are taking the rounds in the public papers, and also to correct other statements in relation to the recent difficulties which have occurred in this county, between the Mormons and their opponents.

It is well known, that I did not, nor could not approbate the proceedings of that portion of the citizens of this county who have been engaged against this sect of people; and that, in consequence of my forbearing to participate in their measures, my situation has been vewry unpleasant. I have observed in your paper a statement that the Lieutenant Governor was driven from this county. This statement is entirely untrue. No violence has ever been done me in any respect. I have also understood that a report has by some means got in circulation, that I had assumed the authority to order out the militia, and that I was compelled to do so by the populace: -- this statement is also without the least foundation in truth. I have observed a statement in the St. Louis Times, which is taken from your paper, above the signature of "Orsan Hyde," in which Mr. Hyde states, that the militia were called out on Monday the 14th instant, and that they participated in the battle which was fought that evening near the boundary line. This statement of Mr. Hyde is absolutely and entirely false. The information of that battle having taken place produced the call of the Militia. The battle took place about ten miles above this place, late on Monday evening, and the Militia were not paraded until ten o'clock, A. M. on the next day (Tuesday.) The Militia were ordered into service by Lieut. Colonel Pitcher, (the Colonel being [called for] the purpose of suppressing the insurrection.) I approved of the course adopted by Col. Pitcher, as the only means of saving bloodshed, and of restoring order. On Tuesday morning, before the whole of the Militia that were ordered out had assembled (about one hundred men had paraded,) a messenger arrived in great haste, giving the information that the Mormons, numbering perhaps one hundred and fifty, well armed, were then within a mile, or a mile and a half of town, coming on with a view to attack and destroy the place. -- Col. Pitcher thought it advisable to march his men to the western edge of our town, and there to await the arrival of the Mormons, and, if possible, to prevent bloodshed, and get those deluded people to disperse and return to their homes. On reaching the western edge of the town, the Col. despatched one of the Mormons, as a messenger to that portion of his brethren then in arms, with this information, that the Militia were raised to quell this insurrection, and that they must come forward, surrender their arms, and return to their homes. This, after considerable consultation back and forth, the Mormons at length complied with. They surrendered their arms and returned to their homes, with the exception of three, who were delivered over to the civil authority as having been engaged on the preceding day in the foregoing battle over Blue. These three were subsequently discharged and returned to their homes. The statement of Mr. Hyde, that the Militia acted as a mob, is altogether false -- no men ever behaved better, nor was any person whatever molested or injured by the Militia. Immediately after the surrender, the Militia returned to town and were dismissed, with the exception of a small guard intended to guard the Mormons. On the next day, or the day afterwards, the Mormons took fright at the threats of the populace, and fled in every direction. Mr. Hyde also states that Mr. Hicks was killed. This is a mistake: Mr. Hicks was not within fifty miles of the place of action; he was in Lafayette County, attending the Circuit Court. It is true, that the dwellings of the Mormons were, to the number perhaps, which Mr. Hyde mentions, torn down by the populace, under cover of the night. The persons engaged in this matter are not known. The information which reached here about 8 o'clock on Monday night, the 4th instant, by an express, giving intelligence of the aforesaid battle, stated that the Mormons, to the number perhaps of sixty, well armed, attacked a party of the citizens, numbering about 20; that he left them fighting, and bore off the body of a small boy, who was shot in the back; that he could not tell the extent of the bloodshed that had taken place. It has turned out, however, that two of the citizens were killed on the ground, and several wounded: the Mormons lost one man killed and several wounded. As it regards the particulars of this aforesaid battle (and which is the only one that has taken place,) I have taken measures to procure a correct statement; as soon as it is obtained, it will be laid before the public. I have written to the Governor, and have given him a statement in detail of such matters, connected with this unfortunate occurence, as came under my observation; which he may probably make public. You will oblige me and subserve the cause of truth, by publishing this statement in your paper.

                    LILIBURN W. BOGGS.

Charless &Pasehall.]        St. Louis, Friday, Dec. 20, 1833         [Vol. 12 - No. 653. Picture2

From the Western Monitor.  


Statement of Rev. Isaac McCoy.

SHAWNEE, Jackson County, Mo.  
November 28, 1833.  

Gentlemen. -- I have resided about a year and a half within the Mormon settlements in this country. I have had many of them employed at divers times to labor for us. I have said little to them upon the subject of their peculiar notions of things, temporal and spiritual and I have scarcely if ever mentioned even their names to one of my correspondents. I should perhaps, remain silent upon this subject, had I not been requested to make some statements of the facts which have occurred in the late disturbances with the Mormons, and that this request had emanated from a source which gives it a claim to a respectful notice.

An impression seems to prevail abroad that the Mormons are here persecuted on account of their peculiar notions of religion. This, I think, is entirely a mistake.

In the efforts that have been made to induce them to leave this county, many have called them fools and fanatics, but I never heard that they had been once interrupted in the performance of their religious services, nor that the slightest injury had been done to either their persons or property on account of their religious opinions and practices.

The Mormons, as I suppose from information, came here so ignorant of laws, regulating intercourse with the Indian tribes, that they expected to pass on into the Indian Territiry, procure lands of the Indians, aid them in adopting habits of civilization, and attach them to their party. At the western line of Missouri, they were arrested by the proper authorities of government. Frustrated in this design, they located in this county, and procured land, to a small amount only, for so great a number of persons. The village of Independence was by them termed "Zion" in their public prints, and that was the Nucleus of the New Jerusalem. They have repeated, perhaps, hundreds of times, that this country was theirs, the Almighty had given it to them, and that they would assuredly have entire possession of it in a few years. Reports believed by many to be true, for the correctness of which I cannot vouch, says that they repeatedly declared that if the Almighty should not give it to them by any other miracle, it would be done by their sword -- by blood, &c. However erroneous these reports might have been, such sayings, appeared to the people very near akin to so many remarks which were common among them, and unfortunately for the Mormons, these reports were believed to be true, and the effect upon the public mind was accordingly.

By the steam boat Yellow Stone, the cholera was brought into our neighborhood the past summer. It occasioned alarm but did not spread among the inhabitants. On this occasion, one of them, an intimate acquaintance of mine, appeared to be elated with hopes, that the accomplishment, of their predictions was now at hand; that this plague was for the destruction of the wicked, whilst they, the righteous, would escape. The intimations of a similar feeling on the part of many others were too obvious to pass unnoticed.

But the other citizens thought they discovered that the Mormons needed neither pestilence nor sword to accomplish their purpose of getting entire possession of the country. They were introducing a state of society which would evidently become intolerable to others and would rid the country of all who did not belong to their party.

A few of them are men of education sufficient for the transaction of the ordinary business of the country; the principal portion of them are illiterate, uninformed and superstitious. Some of them were suspected to possess malicious and dishonest dispositions while others appeared to have been gathered from among the shiftless and ignorant more or less of whom are to be found in all countries, who live, as the saying is, from hand to mouth, and whose condition in life could hardly be made worse. Such as have arrived here fancied that they were within the rudiments of an imense city; preachers were in various parts of the United States, portraying to this class of people the glories of their "Zion," and exhorting converts to go up thereto, and emigrants came in rapidly. The citizens became confirmed in the belief that, among others they designed to influence such free blacks as had been proselyted to their faith, and whose condition might be such that they would not be prohibited by the laws of Missouri.

They were filling this new country with a people among whom others could not live. In this Mormons gloried, and on account of it others grumbled. The emigration to this country of others than Mormons, decreased, while those who were here apprehended approaching necessity of removing from society in which their children ought to be brought up and in which they could not be suitably educated. Some had considerable possessions, if they should be compelled to leave the Mormons alone would be the purchasers of their property, and consequently at their own price, as they often boasted, would be the case. Matters had not yet reached this state of things but were rapidly approaching it.

Hitherto, the Mormons had been quiet upon the subject of politics, but it was easily perceived that as matters were progressing, at no distant day they would control all county business. It is reasonable to suppose that this consideration operated to widen the breach between them and their opponents.

Under such inducements as these, a meeting of the citizens was called in Independence, to consult on measures to prevent the maturity of the evils of which the people complained. About this time threats were occasionlly made to throw down houses, &c., their printing office, and their store house in Independence were considered most in danger, but the Mormons were not much intimidated; their store they said was the Lord's store-house, and therefore it could not be injured, and if any one should extend his hand to injure the house in which their Revelations, &c. were printed, his hand would immediately wither.

Many of the more reputable citizens took part in this meeting; ardent spirits were forbidden to the company, and the subjects introduced for consideration were dispassionately discussed. They then proceeded to the Printing Office, and razed it to its foundation to the apparent astonishment of many of them who were looking on at a distance, and they put tar and feathers upon two of their leaders.

A second meeting was held, and a compromise made. The Mormons by a committee, agreed to leave the county, part of them by the 1st of January 1834, and the residue by a given time next spring. Some of them were to remain unmolested, and attend to winding up the business of the society; the damage done to the Mormons' property was to be assessed by disinterested persons, and paid by those who had injured it.

For some weeks the conduct and conversation of the Mormons indicated an intention to comply with the terms of the compromise. But again they became silent upon the subject of removal, and as formerly. appeared to be preparing fields with a view of remaining. Not feeling themselves bound by bonds subscribed by them under their peculiar circumstances, they instituted a law suit for damages which had been done their property, and that suit is yet pending.

While the other citizens little apprehended it, the Mormons procured powder and lead and distributed it among them and also guns. In October, threatenings to throw down houses, to whip their leaders, and to apply tar and feathers increased. The Mormons bid defiance with increasing confidence, and threatened retaliation by shooting. About the last of October matters upon both sides grew more and more alarming every moment. About this time they became strongly suspected of secretly tampering with the neighboring Indians, to induce them to aid in the event of open hostility; for myself, I could not resist the belief that they had sought aid from the Indians though I have not ascertained that legal evidence of the fact could be obtained.

It has been stated to me that on Thursday the 31st October, a conspiracy was formed by several Mormons to kill one of the citizens, and that on the night of the following day a party actually approached the dwelling of their victim, who fortunately was absent.

On the night of the 31st, a party threw off roofs, and otherwise damaged some ten or a dozen Mormon cabins, on the West of Blue River; a Mormon leader presented his gun in defence of either himself or property, he was warned of the dreadful consequences which would follow his shooting, and he forbore; he was taken and flogged; two other leaders were treated in the same manner.

On the night of Nov. 1st, Mormon houses in Independence were assailed with bricks, doors and windows were broken, &c.

This party had scarcely completed their designs for that time, when a considerable company of Mormons, armed, entered and for a while patrolled the village.

On the same night a company of armed Mormons, under command of a leader, with a sword by his side, hailed two men as they were passing the road upon lawful business and ordered them to advance and give the countersign. On enquiring for the authority of the party to detain them, one of them was told that he was a dishonest man, upon which he struck the Mormon captain with his gun; the captain then ordered the men to "fire." The party raised their guns a little, but hesitated; another voice cried out "why don't you shoot." They still disobeyed, but they seized the two men and put them in what the party termed their "guard house," and gurded them till morning, when they were let go without injury.

On the night of the 2nd Nov. a company approached a house, about five miles west of Independence, with a view no doubt of injuring it, and as they approached the Mormons fired on them and wounded a young man severely, though not mortally. The party returned the fire without injury to any; the Mormons fled; the party caught one of them and whipped him; but, as I understood, did no further damage.

On the 3d, both parties appeared to be preparing for battle. Notwithstanding a large majority of the citizens within the Mormon settlement desired to be rid of them, there were many who had not countenanced the demolishing of houses, &c. Some of these now felt it to be their duty to endeavour to prevent the further shedding of blood. They therefore used entreaties and offered to mediate between the parties, and to bear messages of peace from one to the other, if it should be desired. One of my neighbors, who was thus entreating with an active Mormon, was answered that they, the Mormons, had resolved to fight while one of them remained alive. My neighbor then appealed to his professions of religion, and reminded him that the Bible forbade such a course as he said they had resolved upon. The Mormon replied that the Israelites had been authorized by the Bible to drive out the Canaanites, and he pleaded a similar privilege for his society.

A place of rendezvous on the 4th Nov. had been appointed by the citizens six miles West of Independence. I supposed that the object of this meeting was to agree upon further measures. In a consultation early in the morning with one of my neighbors, we concluded that the method most likely to suceed in allaying violent feelings on both sides, and thus preventing the effusion of blood, would be to persuade them to have immediate recourse to the law. I communicated this proposed expedient to an influential neighbor, who accompanied me to the place of rendezvous for the purpose of applying it. The matter was explained to a few gentlemen who had influence with the company, who falling in with the plan, encouraged forbearance on the part of the company.

It was pretty late in the day when I left the company; I then distinctly understood that it had been agreed upon by them, not to interrupt either the persons or the property of the Mormons, on that day, or the following night. They agreed to meet again for consultation on the following day, by which time such as were striving to make peace hoped that prosecutions would be so far in progress as to satisfy all to resign their quarrel to the decisions of the court. From this company I went in quest of Mormons; I found only three or four, those I warned of the imminent danger I feared they were in, and entreated them not to use their arms; that they could not possibly repel the superior numbers which would appear against them. I advised that such of them as desired to remain peaceable, would allow me to carry a message to the other party in their behalf, and I persuaded myself that in that way they would be allowed to remain unmolested. I also stated the conclusions on that day, of the party opposed to them, and my hopes that if the Mormons could be induced to manifest a pacific spirit, the whole difficulty might be disposed of without the further shedding of blood. As the more influential Mormons were embodied, I know not where, I could not get access to them. I therefore desired, that intelligence should be given to them, that they all might understand my desire to mediate, and might hear my advice. Unfortunately, the suspicions of the Mormons that I was insincere, rendered these entreaties unavailing; they now came rather too late. I was engaged in these transactions when I was told that the reports of guns had been heard in a direction which a company of Mormons had gone a few hours before, and that a skirmish had likely occured.

After I had left the party, as stated above, and as they were about dispersing . two lads arrived with intelligence that they had been a while detained by the Mormons on the road, that they were armed, and said that none should pass upon the road, &c. The party mounted their horses, and with disorder equal to the rapidity, hastened to the place. A few Mormons were seen, who fled; they took one and compelled him to promise not to take up arms again, and dismissed him without injury.

The party returned to one of the Mormon houses; several women were seen [hastening] away; they were told by many of the party that they need apprehend no danger from them; [they], the company, agreed to disperse, and [severally?] left for their homes in diverse directions, [some] fifteen or twenty perhaps, loitered a little, [then] suddenly they were attacked on two sides [by] the Moemons, the number of whom is [reported] to have been over 40. The Mormons [took?] possession of the ground on their side; six [there] were wounded, one of whom died on the following day. Two of the other party were killed upon the ground, but who did not belong to either party, another who was there at the [time] was taken prisoner by the Mormons, and [detained?] until the following morning, when he [was] let go without injury.

[It] is stated that on the night after the skirmish, several Mormons resolved upon the death [of three] citizens, whom they particularly [se------ed] as persons whom they supposed exerted [hostile?] influence against them

On the same night a party of Mormons, well armed, and apparently not wanting in courage, left the Western Mormon settlement with the design of uniting with others in an attack upon Independence.

On the following morning my anxieties and those of other peaceable persons in the neighborhood, became very great. I was informed, in a way that I was compelled to believe it to be true, that immediately after the battle of the preceding day, Mormons in their mode of expression, had received a command to "rise," and pursue their enemies and kill them whenever they found them. Two Mormons came to my house early, one to ask advice what he should do, the other to entreat me to use my influence with their opposers to forbear the perpetration of cruelties upon them. I informed him that I was then setting out upon that errand, and that through the course of the day I proposed to return and visit the Mormons upon the same business of peace. I then ascertained that the greater part of the Mormons could not be seen by me, and justly conjectured that they were about to make a dreadful blow, and that they would most likely strike on Independence.

It was early on the day of the 5th, that about 150 Mormons, apparently well organized for battle, approached within a mile of Independence. At that time there were perhaps not more than fifty guns in the Village; during the night some of the Militia had been ordered into service. These were coming together constantly, and it is probable that this apparent accumulation of men in arms, was the occasion of a halt of the Mormons for a short time, when they left the public road and turned into a suitable place for defence in the woods. A message of peace was sent to them, and negitiations commenced which did not terminate before three or four o'clock in the afternoon. In the meantime the number of the Militia had so increased as to be about equal to that of the Mormons. The latter surrendered fifty-three guns, the residue it is supposed they conveyed away during the negotiations.

Had they reached Independence an hour sooner, it must in all human probability, have fallen into their hands; and had they marched straight forward into the village as they approached it, without hesitation, I think they would have succeeded in taking it. It is probable that they designed to kill or drive out all the inhabitants, and to destroy the Village. --

Had they succeeded in their design against Independence all the settlements, extending 14 miles Westward would have been placed at their mercy. Intelligence could not have reached the citizens in time for them to have assembled [men] for resistance, and they could have saved themselves in no other way than by flight. Here I must be allowed to exclaim, what an awful catastrophe have we escaped! and how signal, and how merciful was that providence [which] terminated the alarming doings of this day without the shedding of Blood!

On the following day, Nov. 6th, on my way to Independence, I met a company who urged the necessity of taking possession of such arms [as] they were still in possession of, fearing that [in] the present state of feeling, rash measures would be resorted to. I entreated them to await my return when I would [accompany them], to which request I understood them to agree.

A few miles further I met a much larger company going upon the same business. I had too much reason to [believe] that lives would be lost upon that enterprise, unless [something] could be thrown into the scale to balance the [----] excitement which the friends of the deceased and [some?] others labored under. I therefore proposed to [go] back with them; a few of the more dispassionate [desired] me to do so, whilst others requested me to proceed [to the] village and not to accompany them. I addressed a few respectful remarks to them, and was permitted [to go] with them. I embraced every opportunity of [endeavoring] to allay the excitement of individuals. The company consented to appoint a leader. This gentleman conducted with much propriety thro' the day. He [allowed?] me to propose to the company, that two or three [persons?] only should approach a house in advance of the company, and inform the Mormons that the object of the [men] was not to injure them, but merely to request them to deliver up their guns. The plan was unanimously [accepted], and with a few exceptions, it was adhered to [throughout] the day. They allowed me to be one of [those] to go in advance under these arrangements. The company proceeded until near sundown, when we [severally?] returned to our places; no act of violence was committed upon any person, and no depredation was made [on] any species of their property by this company.

[On] four days following, that is, on the morning of the [10th], a few of the Militia were patrolling the settlements [forwards?] to the Mormons to defend them against [m----- rash] men, and also to quiet the fears of the citizens. {On] the 11th there was a meeting of a few citizens, [and] measures were adopted for lessening the inconveniences of those who were leaving the settlement. A [message] was sent to their leaders, that they would not [be] molested in attending to the disposal of their lands or [their] property; that it was only necessary that the names [of] such as they desired to remain upon this business [should?] be made known, and excepting such as had [become] too obnoxious to the citizens, they would be [com---ed] to the friendship of all. In this way they might [avail?] themselves of the means of aleviating their suffering, in a precipitate removal and much property would [be] sold immediately for its full value. Very few of them [were?] at this time in the neighborhood, though I have [no------] heard that they have disposed of any of their lands. Among the many reports which have been afloat, it [has] been somewhat difficult to come at that which was [correct].

In making out the foregoing statement, I have been influenced by such information as I supposed was correct; [but] it is possible, that in the details, my information in some small matters may have been mistaken, and this is [the] more likely as I have had less opportunity of obtaining information from the Mormons than from their opposers.

The telling of the foregoing tale has been a painful task, one which I could not have performed upon any other considerations than a sense of duty to the public, which [has] been urged by your request; hence you will please to [---st], the high considerations of your obedient servant.


Note: This statement by the Rev. Isaac McCoy was written to the editors of the Fayette Western Monitor and published in that paper about Dec. 6th. The letter was subsequently reprinted both by the Republican and (in abbreviated form, a day later) by the Columbia Missouri Intelligencer. Mormon leaders were quick to deny that Rev. McCoy had played "the part of a peacemaker" in during the conflict between the Saints and their Gentile neighbors in and around Independence -- see the Republican's article of Jan. 30, 1834. LDS historians like B. H. Roberts have generally followed this early Mormon judgment and have accused the Baptist minister (and famous missionary to the Indians) Isaac McCoy, along with other local clergymen, of "leading armed bands of marauders" against the Jackson County Mormons. According to Roberts, men like McCoy were "the main inspirers of cowardly assaults on the defenseless." For a somewhat more sympathetic view of the Rev. McCoy, his interactions with the Mormons, and his Dec. 1833 statement, see Warren A. Jennings' "Isaac McCoy and the Mormons," in the Oct. 1966 issue of Missouri Historical Quarterly, (LXI:1, pp. 63-82). This piece reproduces lengthy quotes from McCoy's 1833 journal, along with extracts from more of his obscure holographs, not otherwise easily accessible for consultation.

Charless &Pasehall.]        St. Louis, Thursday, Jan. 30, 1834         [Vol. 12 - No. 665. Picture2

THE MORMONS. -- The last Western mail brought us a handbill in defence of the motives and conduct of the Mormons since their settlement in Jackson county in 1831. It is signed by three individuals of the sect -- Parley Pratt, Newell Knight and John Carrill; and is dated on the 12th December. This publication describes the persecutions which they have suffered, not to any criminal violation of the laws or the rights of others, but to their religious opinions. These persecutions are said to have been unrelenting, and to have been accompanied by misrepresentation, and serious injury to property and person. Of course, they differ from the opposite party in the details of the disturbances of November last, which terminated in their expulsion from Jackson county. The burden of the blame is thrown upon 'the mob,' as their opponents are called: the writers accuse Lt. Gov. Boggs, Col. Pitcher, and Col. Lucas, of practising a stratagem upon them, and thereby depriving them of their arms. The conduct of the citizens, after the arms of the Mormons had been surrendered, is represented in strong and indifnant terms -- bursting into houses without fear, knowing the arms were secured, frightening the women and children and warning them to flee immediately, or they would tear the house down over their heads, and massacre them before night. -- They accuse the Rev. Isaac McCoy, instead of acting the part of a peacemaker, (as he has stated,) of appearing at the head of a company, with a gun on his shoulder, ordering the Mormons to leave the county forthwith, and surrender what arms they had; and 'other pretended preachers' are implicated by them in the persecution. -- The writers continue the detail of the flight, subsequent treatment and sufferings of their people, up to the time of publication. The greater portion of them fled to Clay county, 'where the people are as kind and accommodating as could reasonably be expected.' But a number of families -- consisting of about 150 persons -- went into the new county of Van Buren; from whence, the writers state, an express had just arrived, stating, that these families were about to be driven from that county by force, after building their houses and carting grain and provisions for 40 or 50 miles. Several families had already fled. Van Buren county is estimated to contain 30 or 40 families, exclusive of their own sect. In a postcript the writers state, that intelligence had been received from Independence, in Jackson county, of fresh outrages having been committed near the village, on the night of the 2d December, upon four aged and infirm families, who had been suffered to remain there. The houses were injured and the lives of the inmates endangered.

This is, perhaps, a sufficient notice of these unfortunate dissentions. Both parties have a right to be heard, but at this time matters of more general importance, claim precedence in our columns.

Charless &Pasehall.]        St. Louis,  Monday, June 2, 1834         [Vol. ? - No. ? Picture2

THE MORMONS. -- Difficulties are anticipated between the Mormons and the citizens of Jackson county. A letter from Independence, under date of 21st May, says -- "The people here are in fearful expectation of a return of the Mormons to their homes. They have heard that a reinforcement is coming from Ohio, and that as soon as the Santa Fe company of traders leave, the Mormons will re-cross the river from their temporary residence in Clay county; in which event, much blood will be shed. It is not to be wondered at, that they have chosen this as the 'promised land,' for it is decidedly the richest in the state.' A merchant of Independence has, we understand, given orders for a piece of artillery to be sent to him immediately, to be used in defence of his property. The Mormonites are now on their way from Ohio."

Charless &Pasehall.]            St. Louis,  Monday, June 30, 1834           [Vol. ? - No. ? Picture2

From the Missouri Enquirer.


On Monday last, a committee on the part of the citizens of Jackson county, and one in behalf of the Mormon people, met in this place, to take into consideration the subject of compromising the difficulties which occurred in Jackson county last fall. At the suggestion of the Hon. Judge Ryland, the parties met at the court house, and were addressed by him in an impressive and forcible manner, relative to the importance and urgent necessity of bringing their difficulties to an honorable adjustment. He portrayed to them, in lively colors, the destructive and inevitable consequences which would result from an onstinate refusal to bring this disagreeable and truly deplorable state of things to an amicable end. He informed the commitees of the respective parties, that it was not his province as a high judicial officer, to dictate to them the terms upon which they should settle this subject; nevertheless, as a man who felt deeply interested for his country and its laws, and the happiness and well being of his fellow men, he advised them to ponder well what they were about to do; and after enjoining upon them the necessity of regarding the laws of the land, -- he addressed the Mormons, warning them against the danger of suffering themselves to be led by pretenders to the high preogatives of the Prophets of God, to certain destruction. With all the candor of a man who felt the importance of the crisis, he informed them of the real state of feeling that now pervades the greater part of the upper country he supposed that the Mormons might cross the river and defeat the citizens of Jackson in battle -- that it would only be the means of involving them in greater difficulties -- that hundreds would rush from the adjoining counties to revenge the blood of their neighbors, and that they must be expelled in turn -- that the arm of the civil law could do nothing amid the din of arms and the rage of war -- and he hoped they would reflect seriously, before our rich soil should be deluged with the blood of our countrymen.

A meeting was then organized by the citizens of Clay county, for the purpose of appointing a committee to act as mediators, and lend every possible aid to effect a compromise, but without effecting any thing, the people became so much excited, that it was thought most prudent to adjourn.

We are truly sorry to see such a state of things, yet it is a lamentable fact that this matter is about to involve the whole upper country in civil war and bloodshed. We cab not (if a compromise is not agreed to before Saturday next) tell how long it will be before we shall have the painful task of recording the awful realities of an extermination war. The crisis has arrived, and it behooves every well-wisher of his country to act with prudence and self possession, and to use every exertion to allay the impending storm.

We have very little idea that the Mormons will accede to the propositions made by the citizens. We are told that such a hope is hardly entertained by any of the Jackson committee, and we have no doubt but the citizens of Jackson are determined to dispute every inch of ground. The chairman of the committee declared in the court house, in the presence of five or eight hundred persons, appealing to high heaven for the truth of his assertion, that they would dispute every inch of ground, burn every blade of grass, and suffer their bones to bleach on their hills, rather than the Mormons should return to Jackson county.

(The paper also contains a correspondence between the commitees of the respective parties, in which the people of Jackson county propose to buy the possessions of the Mormons in that county, at an appraised valuation, with the addition of 100 per cent. upon the ascertained value; or to dispose of their property upon the same terms to the Mormons. The Mormon committee, not being authorized to treat upon this subject, asked time to consult their brethren.)

Charless & Pasehall.]            St. Louis, Friday, July 25, 1834           [Vol. ? - No. ? Picture2

The health of St. Louis, notwithstanding the extreme heat of the weather, is unusually good. The cholera was entirely disappeared.

The pestilence yet prevails at Chariton, among the Mormons, at Liberty, and perhaps other places on the Missouri. Gilbert, a leader of the Mormons, died from an attack of it, and Jo Smith, the Prophet, was on his way to Ohio, at the last account.

Some other deaths have occured at Rushville, Pekin, Dillon's Settlement, and at Pleasant Grove, six miles above Peoria.


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